The Philippines are a perfect example of how the Mongol types spread out from Taiwan. Popular belief holds that the majority of Philippine people are descendants of migrants from Indonesia and Malaysia who came to the islands in successive waves over many centuries and largely displaced the aboriginal inhabitants. But modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence, however, strongly suggests that those migrants originated in Taiwan and went on from the Philippines to settle Indonesia and Malaysia. Pre-Spanish Period The first people in the Philippines, the Negritos, are believed to have come to the islands 30, years ago from Borneo and Sumatra, making their way across then-existing land bridges. According to popular belief, Malays subsequently came from the south in successive waves, the earliest by land bridges and later in boats by sea. In contrast, modern archeological, linguistic, and genetic evidence strongly suggests that those successive waves of migrants came from Taiwan as the Austronesian sub-group, Malayo-Polynesians. From Taiwan, the Austronesians first spread southward across the Philippines, then on to Indonesia, Malaysia, and as far away as Polynesia and Madagascar. The migrants settled in scattered communities, named barangays after the large outrigger boats in which they arrived, and ruled by chieftains known often as datus. Mainland Chinese merchants and traders arrived and settled in the ninth century, sometimes traveling on the ships of Arab traders, who introduced Islam in the south and extended some influence even into Luzon. The Malayo-Polynesians, however, remained the dominant group until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century.
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The Orion constellation is a pattern of stars that is repeated in monuments throughout the ancient world, from Egypt to Mexico, this constellation has been the center of the skies for our ancestors, but why was Orion so important to the ancient civilizations? It is consistently oriented 15 to 25 degrees east of true north, and the front wall of the Pyramid of the Sun is exactly perpendicular to the point on the horizon where the sun sets on the equinoxes.
The Avenue of the Dead points at the setting of the Pleiades. Another alignment is to the dog star Sirius, sacred to the ancient Egyptians, which has led some to suggest a link between the great pyramids of Egypt and Mexico. Orion, more than a constellation, s global phenomena.
Such sites are all within around 40 kilometers from the mainland coastline, which is the same distance inland noted as the territorial limits of the Karankawa tribes by Euro-American .
Gramercy Books, , p. Element Books, , pp. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 5: The History of Atlantis, pp. The Secret Doctrine, 2: Cedric Leonard, Linguistic connections: Corliss, Science Frontiers, no. Atlantis and American antiquity Continental and oceanic crust is constantly rising or falling. There is also extensive and mounting evidence that large areas of the oceans were dry land at different times in the past.
Europeans were lactose intolerant 5,000 years AFTER adopting farming
It has been suggested by historians such as George Petrie , who surveyed the site in the early 19th century, that the tumulus may predate the ringfort of Aileach by many centuries possibly to the neolithic age. Surrounding stones were laid horizontally, and converged towards the centre. It was subsequently destroyed, but its former position is marked by a heap of broken stones.
Native American Medicine: The North American Indians are known to have believed that there was an intimate connection with plants and the medicine wheel. They believe that plants were given by the creator in order to heal people.
Meltzer, Adovasio, and Dillehay Yet the site has solid evidence of non-Clovis, Paleoindian occupations including human remains, plus a unique rock painting tradition from at least 12, , BP. Much of the interview is given here for full text, see printed issue of AR, V3, no. Based on your Nature article and several recent web reports, your sites have a wide range of dates, some as early as , years BP with two hearth samples dated at 32, BP, and evidence of cave painting a fragment with two ochre-drawn lines associated with a 17, year old C dated hearth.
How are these dates holding up as your work progresses? These dates are holding well. The results are given here by Dr. The sub-phase BPF 1, the lowest layer with definite evidence of human activity in the Pedra Furada Rock Shelter, gave radiocarbon results ranging from 35, to greater than 48, BP Guidon and Arnaud ; Parenti
Native American religion
Dating[ edit ] Nearly caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. Initially, the age of the paintings had been a contentious issue, since methods like radiocarbon dating can produce misleading results if contaminated by samples of older or newer material,  and caves and rocky overhangs where parietal art is found are typically littered with debris from many time periods. But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself, torch marks on the walls,  or the formation of carbonate deposits on top of the paintings.
However, using the description of the settlement from sagas of Viking voyages, along with archaeological work carried out at L’Anse aux Meadows and at Native American sites along the east coast of North America, an archaeologist has narrowed down the likely location of Hóp to northeastern New Brunswick.
Kokopelli is one of the favorite images of North American folkloric ideology. The likeness of a flute player with a hump, aged over 1, years through the oral and artistic traditions of the Hopi, can be found all over the southwest. Malotki, a professor of languages, analyzes the mystical fascination people have for the Panesque player of the flute. Kokopelli has been used in forms varying from wall decorations to characters in popular literature.
Malotki believes that there is a connection between Kokopelli and two of the Hopi gods and uses Hopi text and folktales to share with the reader the many stories surrounding Kokopelli and to reveal what he sees. Throughout this book, numerous samples of the flute player are displayed to show the reader the multiple types of characters that have existed in this form.
Anyone interested in the Hopi, or mythological characters, will enjoy this thoroughly intriguing investigation into a Native American legend. Why can some people be exposed to toxins, stressors, or traumatic events and be significantly less affected than others? The author conducts a review of research, constructs a theoretical model psychophysiological resilience, and examines the impact of prenatal and early childhood events on the formation of neural regulatory circuits.
Psychophysiological resilience involves psychological, physiological, emotional, and spiritual resilience. Research is cited to support the theory that events occurring during gestation and birth offer clues to sustained adaptive programming that supports species preservation. Research relating the impacts of adaptive vs. Emerging research on the role of the heart and the use of guided imagery and Heart Rate Variability HRV biofeedback in rebuilding physiological and emotional adaptive processes of resilience is articulated.
See the Music Practice Commons web site.
Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American ‘ungulates’
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May 07, · Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the ‘native’ South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that.
The population of this extensive valley was so great that it caused surprise, and required a close investigation into the nature of a country that without cultivation, could afford the means of subsistence to so great a community, and who were such indifferent hunters. Trapper , in Cook b: The Great Central Valley witnessed many population movements, waves of cultural influence from neighboring areas, and a complex interplay between local and regional cultural forces—a drama always played against the backdrop of diverse and changing environments.
Although the Valley possibly was first occupied in terminal Pleistocene times, as suggested by core and flake tools at Rancho Murieta, Comanche Reservoir, and the Farmington Complex sites, these assemblages remain to be dated precisely. External relationships between peoples of the Delta locality and those of the Bay Region and central Sierra Nevada generally were more important than relationships with Valley peoples to the north and south.
This east-west emphasis was partly based upon social and linguistic ties and also was a function of economic incentives to trade with peoples in different resource zones. In the upper Sacramento Valley, archeological attention has focused mainly upon late cemeteries and middens. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Reservations and tribal communities comprise over a quarter of Arizona’s lands. Each tribe, their people, has a history, some of which goes back more than 12, years in Arizona. This section of T-RAT. COM, despite it’s title, is only an introduction, and is far from complete; much work in Arizona archaeology will take place in the future, and therefore nothing written today will even come close to being “complete. So much is yet to be discovered, and much to learn.
Native American Indians. Pacific Islanders. Index of Ancient Sites. In contrast, the Australian continent is covered with Aboriginal cave art dating back tens of thousands of years. The oldest art is currently accepted as being over 28, years old. The primary traditional burial practice is to leave the corpse laid out on an.
Scientists know from fossil remains that the horse originated and evolved in North America, and that these small 12 to 13 hand horses or ponys sic migrated to Asia across the Bering Strait, then spread throughout Asia and finally reached Europe. The drawings in the French Laseaux caves, dating about 10, B. This has led anthropologists to assume that Plains Indians only acquired horses after Spaniards accidentally lost some horses in Mexico, in the beginning of the XVIth 16th century, that these few head multiplied and eventually reached the prairies.
Post-glacial remains Some biologists have pointed out that Elders could indeed be correct, for while the mammoth and other Pleistocene mammals died out during the last Ice Age in both continents, if the horse survived in Eurasia, there is no reason for it to have become extinct in North America, especially given similar environment and climate on the steppes and prairies.
In Eurasia, scientists have been able to trace the domestication of the horse through extensive archaeological work, fossil remains, burials, middens garbage heaps and artifacts. Such finds have, for instance, enabled them to determine that peoples there ate horses, buried them with notables, and helped them establish that men started riding about 3, B. By comparison, very little archaeological work has been done on the prairies due in large part to budget constraints.
There are also other problems. Whereas the Seythians, for instance, left magnificent gold jewelry which can be dated to B.
Researchers Claims The Remains of a 200,000 year old advanced civilization Discovered In Africa
Throughout our history, most civilizations have either met a slow demise or were wiped out by natural disasters or invasion. But there are a few societies whose disappearance has scholars truly stumped: The Olmec One of the first Mesoamerican societies, the Olmec inhabited the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico.
Cave of El Castillo, Spain (~ y.o.) Chauvet Cave, near Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, France it was revealed that the lines drawn on the rock were handmade and from an ochre crayon dating back 73, years. This makes it the oldest known rock drawing. There are also Native American pictogram examples in caves of the Southwestern United.
Archaic Indians in Virginia to hold Archaic points onto spears, sinew and plant fibers were strapped around notches at the bottom Source: As the climate warmed and hardwood forests replaced the steppe and boreal forests, elk, buffalo, deer, and smaller mammals replaced the mastodons and mammoths. Virginia had no glaciers in the last Ice Age; the southernmost edge of the last ice sheet was in Pennsylvania and New York. However, cold and dry winds from the ice sheet shaped the vegetation and the hunting opportunities in Virginia.
Until 12, BCE, the Valley and Ridge physiographic province was covered by a closed boreal forest, with a high percentage of pine, spruce and fir trees. As glaciers retreated, more alder pollen appears in the sediment cores from Browns Pond a sinkhole in Bath County. As the climate warmed and got wetter, deciduous forests extended up the mountains. The warmer, drier climate between 8, , BCE spurred the expansion of oaks, hickories, maples and beeches. Such hunts could have been a common event that could provide a major meal, or rare rituals to demonstrate “coming of age” and continued skill of adult hunters seeking prestige.
Then climate change and over-hunting by the Paleo-Indians exterminated the large mammals. The Archaic Period is marked by the adoption of smaller points, without the flakes chipped away in the center “flutes” of Clovis points. When hunting smaller game, smaller points attacked to shorter spears were more effective: Smaller points could also be placed on short spears and projected with atl-atls.
5 – The Central Valley Region
There are several lines of evidence for an ancient tsunami, foremost a large, wedge-shaped berm about 15 feet above sea level paved with washing machine-sized stones, said the researchers. Set back in places more than a quarter of a mile from shore, the berm stretches for at least 30 miles, alternating between rocky headlands and crescent beaches as it tracks the outline of the Caribbean coast near the plush resorts of Playa del Carmen and Cancun. Radiocarbon dates of peat beneath the extensive berm indicate a tsunami, which may have consisted of two or even three giant waves, likely slammed the coastline sometime after A.
In addition, ruins of Post-Classic Mayan structures built between A.
References – M. This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references can also click on these direct links to the various pages.
Indigenous Australians migrated from Africa to Asia around 70, years ago, and arrived in Australia around 50, years ago. Four hundred and more distinct Australian Aboriginal groups have been identified across the continent, distinguished by unique names designating their ancestral languages, dialects, or distinctive speech patterns.
The remarkable longevity of their culture is unique in the modern world, and raises several fundamental questions about the path that ‘Western civilisation’ is currently following. However, I would suggest that if a civilization be defined by the degree of polishing of an individual’s mind and the building of his or her character, and if that culture reflects the measure of our self-discipline as well as our level of consciousness, then the Australian Aboriginals are actually one of the most civilized and highly cultured peoples in the world today.
The Origins of Australian Aborigines: In a genetic study in , researchers found evidence in DNA samples taken from strands of Aboriginal people’s hair, that the ancestors of the Aboriginal population split off from the ancestors of the European and Asian populations between 62, and 75, years ago – roughly 24, years before the European and Asian populations split off from each other. These Aboriginal ancestors migrated into South Asia and then into Australia, where they stayed, with the result that, outside of Africa, the Aboriginal peoples have occupied the same territory continuously longer than any other human populations.
These findings suggest that modern Aboriginal peoples are the direct descendants of migrants who arrived around 50, years ago 3 Both archaeology and the genes of aboriginal Australians suggest that a mere 15, years were required for humanity to spread from its initial toehold outside Africa, on the Arabian side of the straits of Bab el Mandeb, to the Australian continent. The first Immigrants thus arrived about 45, years ago.
A recent study by Irina Pugach of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, and her colleagues, which has just been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has apparently resolved the matter. About 4, years before Europeans arrived, it seems that a group of Indian adventurers from the same time as the great Indus Valley Civilisation chose to call the place home. Unlike their European successors, these earlier settlers were assimilated by the locals.
It was estimated over , Aboriginal people inhabited the island continent in As is seen in many of the European colonisations, warfare wasn’t a necessary strategy for domination as the locals had no resistance to the deadly viruses carried by the sailors and convicts such as smallpox, syphilis and influenza.
Archaeologists find 12,000-year-old pictograph at Gobeklitepe
Enjoy the Famous Daily The first Americans: Known as the Bering Land Bridge, it lies partly south of the ice cap. It develops a steppe-like ecology of grasslands, grazed by large animals such as horses, reindeer and even mammoth. Gradually, in many separate incursions, the hunter-gatherers of the Siberian steppes pursue their prey across the land bridge and into America. When the melting ice submerges the bridge, about 10, years ago, these northeast Asians become isolated as the aboriginal Americans.
This complex, the San Francisco Peaks is sacred to most of the Native American peoples of this region, being significant to 20 tribes, and holy to 13 tribes, including the Navajo, Hopi, Havasupai, Hualapai, Zuni, Acoma, White Mountain Apache and Yavapai Apache.
The Prehistory of the Texas Coastal Zone: When European explorers and colonists first arrived in the region, beginning in the s, the indigenous coastal peoples Karankawa, Akokisa and other tribal groups practiced a mix of subsistence economies: The bays were located behind barrier islands that offered protection from the high-energy wave action of the open Gulf of Mexico. The shallow-water bay environments were rich in fish such as black drum, redfish, speckled sea trout, Atlantic croaker, and marine catfishes that could be taken in huge numbers by netting or by shooting with bow and arrows.
Shellfish, including bivalves oyster, clams, scallops and gastropods whelks and conches could be readily gathered from the shallow bottoms of the bays and lagoons to obtain edible meat and shells that could be used to make a variety of tools and ornaments. Game, especially larger mammals deer, antelope, bison were abundant on the mainland, and were a major source of meat protein, fat, hides, and bones that were, like shell, useful in the production of tools and ornaments.
The coastal zone was, in effect, a broad ecotone, a transitional boundary between two major biophysical provinces, the marine environment of the Gulf of Mexico, and the terrestrial environment of the flat coastal prairies. As such, the region provided indigenous peoples with a range of choices and opportunities in terms of economic resources. At the time of initial contact with Europeans, the coastal tribes must have placed great value on the abundant opportunities that existed within their homelands, and they maintained clear territorial boundaries between their lands and those of Native peoples living in the interior.